In this episode our guest is Dr. Martin Milner. Today's interview features information on optimizing medication with slow-release compounded thyroid replacement.
Can adding adjusting your medication from T4 to slow release with T3 really make you feel better? The answer is, yes! And, could also be the key to losing weight.
We also discuss the following topics, painful feet, dizziness, fatigue, hair loss, iron deficiency, chronic pain, fibromylagia, adrenal connection to to inflammation, sleep problems, muscle spasms, caution with your morning smoothies, and why you should stand up when taking T3.
Want to find a compounding pharmacy that will make your slow release T3 and T4? Start here: http://www.pccarx.com/
Dr. Milner has published several articles on new treatment protocols for hypothyroidism. Most recently, ” Hypothyroidism: Optimizing Medication with Slow-Release Compounded Thyroid Replacement” was published in the peer review journal of compounding pharmacists, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding (IJPC) Vol. 9 No. 4 July/August 2005. In 2006 and 2007 he lectured around the United States guiding physicians and compounding pharmacists in the management of hypothyroidism using his protocol of slow released compounded thyroid replacement. Also to his credit are “Wilson’s Syndrome and T3 therapy – A Clinical Guide to Safe and Effective Patient Management” IJPC Vol. 3 No. 5, Sept/Oct 1999, p. 344-349 and Assessment and Management of Thermoregulation, IJPC Vol. 3 No. 5, Sept/Oct 1999, p. 350-351. Reprints of many of these and other Dr. Milner articles are available at CNMWellness.com, the medical education website of the Center for Natural Medicine. Dr. Milner co-authored chapter 14 in An Alternative Medicine Definitive Guide to Cancer by J. Diamond and W.L. Cowden, the most definitive text on alternative cancer therapies. He also served as the primary consulting physician for Judith Sach’s book Natural Medicine for Heart Disease. The has authored many articles over the years in cardiology.
Dr. Milner is well published with texts, medical journal articles and studies in cardiology, endocrinology, pulmonology, oncology, and environmental medicine. Dr. Milner published in May 2005, Menopause Revolution: Smashing the HRT Myth- Alternatives to Manufactured Drug Therapy , Agora Health Books. He enjoys what he calls practicing “integrated endocrinology” balancing all the endocrine hormones using bio-identical hormone replacement and amino acid neurotransmitter precursors.
Today's guest is Wendy Sacks, M.D., endocrinologist in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism and the Thyroid Cancer Program at Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles.
Some of the topics covered include radioactive iodine treatment, blood testing, the role of the pathologist, selecting the right hospital and medical team for your thyroid cancer treatment, monitoring thyroid cancer reoccurrence, and supplementation.
Dr. Douglas Van Nostrand, MD is the Director of Nuclear Medicine and the Program Director of the Nuclear Medicine Residency Program at Washington Hospital Center and Professor of Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital Center.
His specialty is nuclear medicine, and his primary area of interest and expertise is the nuclear medicine diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer. He has held numerous academic and medical society positions including Clinical Professor of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences; past President, Mid-Eastern Society of Nuclear Medicine, Director of Continuing Medical Education Department, and other elected positions of the Medical Staff of Good Samaritan Hospital. He has over 150 articles published and has been the co-editor of seven medical books including the medical textbook entitled Thyroid Cancer, A Comprehensive Guide to Clinical Management.
In this episode, get the critical questions to ask prior to committing to a surgeon. And, other useful strategies to make sure a patient gets the best outcome possible.
One-third of all thyroid nodule fine needle aspirations come back indeterminate. When surgery is performed on these cases, pathology of the thyroid reveals that many times the nodule is benign. Through molecular profiling, patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules, can now avoid unnecessary surgery and get more accurate pathology results from the fine needle aspiration.
Are you a patient and your doctor has said your thyroid nodule is indeterminate and is recommending surgery as an option? The key is, to confirm that molecular profiling was performed.
Jennifer Kuo, MD is Director of the Thyroid Biopsy Program, Director of the Endocrine Surgery Research Program, and Instructor in Surgery, at the Columbia University Medical Center. Dr. Kuo received her medical degree from the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University and completed surgical training at the University of California, Davis Medical Center, in Sacramento. Her new position follows completion of her clinical fellowship in the Department of Surgery, Division of Endocrine Surgery. Dr. Kuo has clinical expertise in minimally invasive endocrine surgery and fine-needle thyroid biopsy and is dedicated to the advancement of the field of endocrine surgery.
RELATED DOCTOR THYROID EPISODES
23: You Have a Thyroid Nodule, What Happens Next? with Dr. Regina Castro from The Mayo Clinic
In this episode, we hear from Elle Russ, Author of The Paleo Thyroid Solution, and former hypothyroidism sufferer. Elle discusses:
Elle Russ is a writer, health/life coach, and host of the Primal Blueprint Podcast. She is becoming the leading voice of thyroid health in the burgeoning Evolutionary Health Movement (also referred to as Paleo, Primal, or Ancestral Health). Elle has a B.A in Philosophy from The University of California at Santa Cruz and is a certified Primal Health Coach. She sits on the advisory board of The Primal Health Coach Program created by Mark Sisson, bestselling author of The Primal Blueprint. Exasperated and desperate, Elle took control of her own health and resolved two severe bouts of hypothyroidism on her own – including an acute Reverse T3 problem. Through a devoted paleo/primal lifestyle, intensive personal experimentation, and a radically modified approach to thyroid hormone replacement therapy…Elle went from fat, foggy, and fatigued – to fit, focused, and full of life!
Elle Russ web site
Primal Blueprint Podcast
Yahoo Natural Thyroid Support Group
Combination Therapy of T4 and T3 as a way to combat Hypothyroidism
Thyroidectomy often leads to hypothyroidism-like symptoms. This includes brain fog, sluggishness, weight gain, unmotivated, and water accumulation.
Dr. Bianco’s research has revealed the connection between thyroidectomy, hypothyroidism symptoms, and T4 only therapy. Although T4 only therapy works for the majority, others report serious symptoms. Listen to this segment to hear greater detail in regard to the following topics:
Combination therapy of adding T3 to T4
85% of patients on Synthroid feel fine.
Nearly 5% of the U.S. population takes T4, as revealed by the NHANE survey
Residual symptoms of thyroidectomy include depression, difficulty losing weight, poor motivation, sluggishness, and lack of motivation. For some, there is no remedy to these symptoms.
The importance of physical activity and its benefit in treating depression
If we normalize T3 does it get rid of hypothyroid symptoms?
Overlap between menopause and hypothyroidism symptoms
Dr. Antonio Bianco, Rush University Medical Center as professor of medicine, senior vice chair in the Department of Internal Medicine and division chief of endocrinology at Rush University Medical Center. He has more than 30 years of experience in thyroid research.
Bianco’s research interests have been in the cellular and molecular physiology of the enzymes that control thyroid hormone action in which he contributed more than 200 papers, book chapters and review articles, and lectured extensively both nationally and internationally.
Recently, he has focused on the aspects of the deiodination pathway that interfere with treatment of hypothyroid patients, a disease that affects more than 10 million Americans. He is Director of Bianco Labs.
Bianco Lab on Facebook
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States. The survey is unique in that it combines interviews and physical examinations.
You have been diagnosed with thyroid cancer, and choose no surgery. Although thyroid cancer diagnosis has spiked around the world, a trend is to pass on surgery if the cancer is identified as low risk. In doing so, mortality rate does not increase and it avoids unfavorable events sometimes related to surgery, such as vocal chord paralysis, hypothyroidsm, financial costs, and lifelong thyroid hormone treatment.
In this episode, we visit with Dr. hypothyroidism, a pioneer in prescribing active surveillance in place of immediate surgery.
Dr. Miyauchi is President and COO of Kuma Hospital, Center for Excellence in Thyroid Care, Kobe, Japan. He is an endocrine surgeon, especially interested in thyroid and parathyroid diseases. He earned his MD and PhD at Osaka University Medical School in 1970 and 1978, respectively. He was Associate Professor of Department of Surgery, Kagawa Medical University until he was appointed to Vice President of Kuma Hospital in 1998. Since 2001, he is at his present position. About 2,000 operations, including about 1,300 thyroid cancer cases, are done every year at Kuma Hospital. He is currently serving as Chairman of the Asian Association of Endocrine Surgeons. He also served as Council of the International Association of Endocrine Surgeons until August 2015.
Topics covered, include:
In this interview, items discussed include:
Dr. Ralph P. Tufano is the Director of the Division of Head and Neck Endocrine Surgery at The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and conducts thyroid and parathyroid surgery with a focus on optimizing outcomes. He is a recognized world authority on the management of thyroid cancer, thyroid nodules, benign thyroid diseases and parathyroid disease. He has expertise in the management of thyroid cancer nodal metastases, advanced and invasive thyroid cancers as well as recurrent thyroid cancers. His work in molecular markers, improving surgical outcomes, nerve monitoring and exploring novel treatment techniques for thyroid and parathyroid diseases has helped the medical field tailor and personalize treatment for patients with these conditions. He is a Charles W. Cummings Professor, sits on the American Thyroid Association Board of Directors, is Director of the Division of Head and Neck Endocrine Surgery, and is a part of the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. He conducts approximately 450 thyroid surgeries annually.
In this interview, the following topics are discussed:
Thyroid Change Resources
This episode details the medical approach to thyroid nodules. Topics include:
• 60% of the U.S. population has thyroid nodules
• Discovered when evaluating other neck issues such as an unrelated pain
• What happens when you are told you have a thyroid nodule?
• How to know if your thyroid nodule is cancerous?
• When is surgery done despite the nodule being benign?
• Decreasing patient anxiety with quick biopsy results
• The American Thyroid Association as a resource for patients and physicians
• A word of caution about sourcing medical information from online resources
Dr. M Regina Castro is an endocrinologist in Rochester, Minnesota and is affiliated with Mayo Clinic. She received her medical degree from Central University of Venezuela and has been in practice for more than 20 years. Dr. Castro accepts several types of health insurance, listed below. She is one of 78 doctors at Mayo Clinic who specialize in Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism. She also speaks multiple languages, including Spanish and French.
THYROID NODULES — Thyroid nodule size larger than 4 cm does not increase the risk of false negative biopsy results or the risk of cancer
Dr. Wartofsky is Professor of Medicine, Georgetown University School of Medicine and Chairman Emeritus, Department of Medicine, MedStar Washington Hospital Center. He trained in internal medicine at Barnes Hospital, Washington University and in endocrinology with Dr. Sidney Ingbar, Harvard University Service, Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, Boston. Dr. Wartofsky is past President of both the American Thyroid Association and The Endocrine Society. He is the editor of books on thyroid cancer for both physicians and for patients, and thyroid cancer is his primary clinical focus. He is the author or coauthor of over 350 articles and book chapters in the medical literature, is recent past Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, and is the current Editor-in-Chief of Endocrine Reviews.
In this episode, Dr. Wartofsky discusses the following:
37: Adding T3 to T4 Will Make You Feel Better? For Some the Answer is ‘Yes’ with Dr. Antonio Bianco from Rush University
Andrew J. Bauer, MD is an Associate Professor of Pediatrics at the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and serves as the Director of the Thyroid Center in the Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Dr. Bauer maintains active membership as a fellow in the American Academy of Pediatrics (FAAP), the Endocrine Society, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, and the American Thyroid Association. He also volunteers as a consultant for the Thyroid Cancer Survivors Association and the Graves’ Disease and Thyroid Foundation. In the American Thyroid Association Dr. Bauer has recently served as a member of the pre-operative staging committee, the thyroid hormone replacement committee, and as a co-chair for the task force charged to author guidelines on the evaluation and treatment of pediatric thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. His clinical and research areas of interest are focused on the study of pediatric thyroid disease, to include hyperthyroidism, thyroid nodular disease, thyroid cancer, and inherited syndromes associated with an increased risk of developing thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer.
In this episode Dr. Bauer shares the complexities of managing children with thyroid nodules, and differentiated thyroid cancer. This is a must listen interview for parents whose child has a thyroid nodule or thyroid cancer diagnosis.
There are a several important differences in how pediatric thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) present and respond to therapy. Kids are less frequently diagnosed with a thyroid nodule; however, the risk for malignancy is four- to fivefold higher compared with an adult thyroid nodule. For DTC (specifically papillary thyroid cancer), more than 50% of pediatric-aged patients will have metastases to cervical lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis, but because the tumors typically retain the ability to absorb iodine (retain differentiation), disease-specific mortality is very low, with > 95% of pediatric patients surviving from the disease. This is true even for children with pulmonary metastases, which occur in approximately 15% of patients who present with lateral neck disease.
With the high risk for malignancy and the invasive potential of the cancer, there has been a stronger tendency to take kids with thyroid nodules to the operating room (OR) and to administer RAI to those found to have DTC. With a greater realization of the increased risk for surgical complications as well as the short- and long-term complications of RAI treatment, the guidelines emphasize the need for appropriate preoperative assessment of nodules, and the approach to surgical resection, and they provide a stratification system and guidance for surveillance to identify which patients may benefit from RAI. The stratification system, called the "ATA pediatric risk classification," is not designed to identify patients at risk of dying of disease; it is designed to identify patients at increased likelihood of having persistent disease.
We have known about these differences for years, but the approach to evaluation and care has never been summarized into a pediatric-specific guideline. The adult guidelines aren't organized to address the differences in presentation, and the adult staging systems are targeted to identify patients at increased risk for disease-specific mortality. So, the adult guidelines are not transferable to the pediatric population.
Not all thyroid cancer patients who receive a thyroidectomy require radioactive iodine, but for those whose cancer maybe more aggressive and spread beyond the thyroid area, often radioactive iodine (RAI) is protocol.
RAI treatment may vary depending on the hospital. For example, in this interview you hear protocol for RAI at Cedars Sinai.
In this interviews, Dr. Alan Waxman explains what occurs leading up to, during, and after RAI. Topics discussed include:
Alan D. Waxman, MD is Director of Nuclear Medicine at the S. Mark Taper Foundation Imaging Center at Cedars Sinai. He is also a member of the Saul and Joyce Brandman Breast Center – A Project of Women’s Guild and the Thyroid Cancer Center at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. He is a clinical professor of radiology at Los Angeles County + University of Southern California (USC) Medical Center. Dr. Waxman’s participation in research has led to the development of many new imaging techniques and equipment adaptations. A leading expert in nuclear medicine imaging, Dr. Waxman has directed efforts to develop innovations in whole-body tumor imaging using new and existing radiolable compounds. Dr. Waxman is an active member and officer of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. He has authored numerous publications and lectured extensively throughout the world. Dr. Waxman is a graduate of the USC Medical School, where he completed his postgraduate training. He also completed a clinical research fellowship at the National Institutes of Health.
Salivary gland toxicity after radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer.
34: What Happens When Thyroid Cancer Travels to the Lungs? with Dr. Fabian Pitoia from the Hospital of University of Buenos Aires
30: Thyroid Cancer and Children with Dr. Andrew Bauer from the Perelman School of Medicine, U of Pennsylvania
Dr. Aime Franco is professor at the University of Arkansas. She leads a research group investigating the role of thyroid hormones in tumorigenesis. She is also actively involved, both locally and nationally, advocating for the importance of biomedical research and the importance of engaging patients and survivors in cancer research.
After, completing her Ph.D. in Cancer Biology, she became a thyroid cancer research fellow at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in the Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program.
Dr. Franco is a survivor of thyroid cancer, and balances her research as a mom and competitive triathlete.
in this interview we explore the following:
Does thyroid cancer have a good prognosis compared to other cancers because its different or because we are aggressive with surgery and radiation therapy?
What were some personal insecurities when facing thyroid cancer surgery?
What are the questions in regard to TSH that the medical community is overlooking?
Which prescription medication works best?
How often and when should thyroid blood markers be tested?
You may find Dr. Franco here, http://physiology.uams.edu/faculty/aime-franco/
In this interview, some of the key points include:
Jody Gelb is a Broadway singer and actress. Six months ago she was diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer, during a doctor's visit for an unrelated issue. This news sparked immediate research and discovering an alternate path that does not include surgery.
In this episode, the following topics are discussed:
Regarding Thyroid Cancer, Are You a Minimalist or a Maximalist? with Dr. Michael Tuttle from Sloan Kettering
Diagnosed with Thyroid Cancer and You Say No to Surgery with Dr. Louise Davies
Avoiding Thyroid Cancer Surgery, Depending on the Size with Dr. Miyauchi from Kuma Hospital in Kobe, Japan
1 in 3 People Die With Thyroid Cancer — Not From with Dr. Seth Landefeld from UAB
Rethinking Thyroid Cancer – When Saying No to Surgery Maybe Best for You with Dr. Allen Ho from Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles
Overdiagnosed: Making People Sick in the Pursuit of Health
Best Time of Day to Take Your Thyroid Medication and Other Questions for the Endocrinologist with Wendy Sacks, M.D. from Cedars Sinai
Dr. Alan Farwell is an endocrinologist, Director of the Endocrine Clinics at Boston Medical Center, and Associate Professor of Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine, in Massachusetts.
In addition to his extensive academic and clinical activities, Dr. Farwell has been extremely active and served in multiple capacities in the ATA, including as Chair of the Education Committee and the Patient Education and Advocacy Committee, and as a member of the Program Committee and the Website Task Force Publications Committee. He has served two terms on the ATA Board of Directors, is the founding and current Chair of the ATA Alliance for Patient Education.
Dr. Farwell has been an Associate Editor and member of the Editorial Board of Thyroid, and since 2009 has been Editor-in-Chief of Clinical Thyroidology for the Public.
In this interview, we discuss the following topics:
Dr. Brady was named director of endocrine surgery for the new medical school in Austin. She was also recently chosen to teach general surgeons seeking additional training in endocrine surgery. Dr. Brady instructs these endocrine surgeons from the Baylor Scott and White fellowship program.
In this episode the following topics are discussed:
Dr. Angela M. Leung is an Assistant Professor of Medicine at the UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine and an endocrinologist at both UCLA and the VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System.
After pursuing her undergraduate studies at Occidental College, Dr. Leung completed her internal medicine residency and endocrinology fellowship training at Boston University School of Medicine. She also studied at the Boston University School of Public Health and obtained a master's degree in Epidemiology.
Dr. Leung has particular clinical and research interests in thyroid disorders, and she also sees patients regarding parathyroid and adrenal disorders. She has published widely and lectures frequently on thyroid disease, including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer, and thyroid disease during pregnancy.
In this episode, the following topics are explained:
Dr. Angela Leung
American Thyroid Association
49: Thyroid and Pregnancy⎥Why It Matters, with Dr. Elizabeth Pearce from Boston University
Dr. Amanda Laird, MD is an endocrine surgeon and Chief of Endocrine Surgery at the Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey in New Brunswick, New Jersey. She is currently licensed to practice medicine in New Jersey and New York. She is affiliated with Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Hospital.
In this interview, Dr. Laird reflects on a decade of treating papillary thyroid cancer patients and reports none have died. In this interview we also explore these questions:
Dr. Danielle Ofri is a doctor at Bellevue Hospital in New York City. She is one of the foremost voices in the medical world today, shining an unflinching light on the realities of healthcare and speaking passionately about the doctor-patient relationship. Her newest book is "When We Do Harm: A Doctor Confronts Medical Error."
Ofri is a regular contributor to the New York Times and is also the editor-in-chief of the Bellevue Literary Review. She lives in New York City and is determined to get through the Bach cello suites before she kicks the bucket.
In this episode:
Dr. Ofri’s Links:
“When We Do Harm: A Doctor Confronts Medical Error”
Recent events - Dr. Ofri:
tinyurl.com/BLRViral Covid Writing Goes Viral: How Literary and Social Media Writing Became a Lifeline during the Pandemic
tinyurl.com/ReadingTheBody Reading the Body: Poetry, Dance & Disability
Doctor Thyroid with Philip James
In this episode, topics include:
Dr. Pearce received her undergraduate and medical degrees from Harvard and a masters’ degree in epidemiology from the Boston University School of Public Health. She completed her residency in internal medicine at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and her fellowship in endocrinology at the Boston University Medical Center. She is currently an Associate Professor of Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine. She has served as a member of the board of directors of the American Thyroid Association and is currently on the management council of the Iodine Global Network. She recently co-chaired the ATA’s Thyroid in Pregnancy Guidelines Task Force. She was the 2011 recipient of the ATA’s Van Meter Award for outstanding contributions to research on the thyroid gland.
Dr. Shaha specializes in head and neck surgery, with a particular interest in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. He uses an algorithm of selective thyroid tumor criteria (the size, location, stage and type of cancer, along with the patient’s age), to tailor therapy to each individual’s circumstances. This can help thyroid cancer patients avoid unnecessary and potentially damaging over-treatment, while still providing the best option for control of their cancer and better quality of life after treatment. Dr. Shaha works very closely with Memorial Sloan Ketterings’ endocrinologists to monitor the careful post-treatment hormone balancing necessary for thyroid cancer patients. Many academic hospitals and medical societies worldwide have invited Dr. Shaha to speak on the principles of targeted thyroid surgery and to share his expertise in the treatment of head and neck cancers.
In this interview, topics include:
50: Regarding Thyroid Cancer, Are You a Minimalist or a Maximalist? with Dr. Michael Tuttle from Sloan Kettering
40: New Research Reveals Thyroid Surgery Errors 5x More Frequent Than Reported with Dr. Maria Papaleontiou from Michigan Medicine
42: Flame Retardants Connected to Thyroid Cancer, with Dr. Julie Ann Sosa from Duke University
35: Rethinking Thyroid Cancer – When Saying No to Surgery Maybe Best for You with Dr. Allen Ho from Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles
21: Diagnosed with Thyroid Cancer and You Say No to Surgery with Dr. Louise Davies
09: Thyroid Cancer Patients Experience Quality of Life Downgrade with Dr. Raymon Grogan and Dr. Briseis Aschebrook from the University of Chicago Medicine
36: 1 in 3 People Die With Thyroid Cancer — Not From with Dr. Seth Landefeld from UAB
During this interview, Dr. Tuttle discusses the following points:
About Dr. Tuttle, in his words:
I am a board-certified endocrinologist who specializes in caring for patients with advanced thyroid cancer. I work as part of a multidisciplinary team including surgeons, pathologists, radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and radiation oncologists that provides individualized care to patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering for thyroid cancer.
In addition to treating patients I am also actively researching new treatments for advanced thyroid cancer. I am a professor of medicine at the Joan and Sanford I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University and travel extensively both in the US and abroad, lecturing on the difficult issues that sometimes arise in the management of patients with thyroid cancer. My research projects in radiation-induced thyroid cancer have taken me from Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands to the Hanford Nuclear power-plant in Washington State to regions in Russia that were exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident.
I am an active member of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the Endocrine Society. In addition to serving on the ATA committee that produced the current guidelines for the management of benign and malignant nodules, I am also a Chairman of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Thyroid Cancer Panel, a consultant to the Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee of the FDA, and a consultant to the Chernobyl Tissue Bank.
Listen to Doctor Thyroid
American Thyroid Association
Dr. Michael Tuttle
35: Rethinking Thyroid Cancer – When Saying No to Surgery Maybe Best for You with Dr. Allen Ho from Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles
22: Avoiding Thyroid Cancer Surgery, Depending on the Size with Dr. Miyauchi from Kuma Hospital in Kobe, Japan
21: Diagnosed with Thyroid Cancer and You Say No to Surgery with Dr. Louise Davies