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Doctor Thyroid

Welcome to Doctor Thyroid with your host, Philip James. This is a meeting place for you to hear from top thyroid doctors and healthcare professionals. Information here is intended to help those wanting to 'thrive' regardless of setbacks related to thyroid cancer. Seeking good health information can be a challenge, hopefully this resource provides you with better treatment alternatives as related to endocrinology, surgery, hypothyroidism, thyroid cancer, functional medicine, pathology, and radiation treatment. Not seeing an episode that addresses your particular concern? Please send me an email with your interest, and I will request an interview with a leading expert to help address your questions. Philip James philipjames@docthyroid.com
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Now displaying: 2020
Dec 8, 2020

Dr. Allen Ho is a fellowship-trained head and neck surgeon who focuses on head and neck tumors, including HPV(+) throat cancers and thyroid malignancies. As director of the Head and Neck Cancer Program and co-director of the Thyroid Cancer Program, he leads the multidisciplinary Cedars-Sinai Head and Neck Tumor Board, which provides consensus management options for complex, advanced cases. Ho’s research interests are highly integrated into his clinical practice. His current efforts lie in cancer proteomics, HPV(+) oropharyngeal cancer pathogenesis, and thyroid cancer molecular assays. He has presented his research at AACR, ASCO, AHNS, and ATA, and has published extensively as lead author in journals that include Nature Genetics, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Cancer, and Thyroid. Ho serves on national committees within the ATA and AHNS, and is principal investigator of a national trial on micropapillary thyroid cancer active surveillance (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02609685). He maintains expertise in transoral robotic surgery (TORS), minimally invasive thyroidectomy approaches, and nerve preservation techniques. Ho’s overarching mission is to partner with patients to optimize treatment and provide compassionate, exceptional care.

Weighing treatment options for thyroid cancer, with deep consideration for the patient’s lifestyle, could become the new norm in assessing whether surgery is the best path. 

Dr. Allen Ho states, “if a patient is a ballerina or an opera singer, or any other profession that could be jeopardized due to undesired consequences of thyroid cancer surgery, then the best treatment path maybe active surveillance.”  Undesired consequences of thyroid cancer surgery could be vocal cord paralysis, damage to the parathyroid glands resulting in calcium deficiencies, excessive bleeding or formation of a major blood clot in the neck, shoulder nerve damage, numbness, wound infection, and mental impairment due to hypothyroid-like symptoms.  Or in the case of a ballerina, undesired scarring could jeopardize a career.   

The above risks occur in approximately 10% of thyroid cancer surgeries.  Although, some thyroid cancer treatment centers have a much more reduced incidence of undesired consequences, while others much higher. 

In order to address the above and remove the risk of thyroid cancer surgery, Cedars-Sinai has become the first west coast hospital to launch an active surveillance study as optional treatment for thyroid cancer.  The study includes 200 patients from across the country who have chosen the wait and see approach rather than hurry into a surgery that could result in undesired, major life changes.   By waiting, this means these patients will dodge the need to take daily hormone replacement medication for the rest of their lives as the result of a thyroidectomy. 

Other active surveillance research

Although this is the first study for active surveillance on the west coast, other studies are ongoing, including Sloan Kettering as directed by Dr. Tuttle, Kuma Hospital in Kobe as directed by Dr. Miyauchi, and the Dartmouth Institute as directed by Dr. Louise Davies.

The team

Dr. Ho says the “de-escalating” of treatment for thyroid cancer will become the new trend.  The active surveillance thyroid cancer team at Cedars-Sinai is orchestrated to the patient’s needs, and includes the pathologist, endocrinologist, and surgeon.

NOTES

Allen Ho, MD

Active Surveillance of Thyroid Cancer Under Study

22: Avoiding Thyroid Cancer Surgery, Depending on the Size with Dr. Miyauchi from Kuma Hospital in Kobe, Japan

21: Diagnosed with Thyroid Cancer and You Say No to Surgery with Dr. Louise Davies

Nov 18, 2020
Bryan McIver, MD, PhD

Dr. McIver contributes to Moffitt Cancer Center almost 20 years of clinical experience in the care of patients with endocrine diseases, specializing in the evaluation of patients with thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. He has a particular interest in the management of patients with advanced and aggressive forms of cancer and the role of genetic and molecular techniques to improve the accuracy of diagnosis; to tailor appropriate treatment to a patientdisease. Dr. McIver has a long-standing basic research interest in the genetic regulation of growth, invasion and spread of thyroid tumors of all types. His primary research focus is the use of molecular and genetic information to more accurately diagnose thyroid cancer and to predict outcomes in the disease. Dr. McIver received his MB ChB degree from the University of Edinburgh Medical School in Scotland. He completed an Internal Medicine residency at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, followed by a clinical fellowship and clinical investigator fellowship in Endocrinology at the School of Graduate Medical Education at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Prior to joining Moffitt, he was employed as Professor and Consultant at the Mayo Clinic and Foundation in the Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism. Amongst his most proud accomplishments, Dr. McIver counts his two commitment to education of medical students, residents and fellows; his involvement as a founding member of the World Congress on Thyroid Cancer, an international conference held every four years; and his appointment as a member of the Endowed and Master Clinician Program at the Mayo Clinic, recognizing excellence in patient care.  

In this episode, the follwoiung 

  • By sixty years old, more common to have nodule than not
  • Most nodules are benign
  • When to do a biopsy
  • How to interpret the results of biopsy
  • Advances in thyroid cancer
  • Ultrasound technology advancements
  • Molecular markers
  • Cytopathology categorizations
  • Molecular marker technologies
  • Gene expression classifier
  • Afirma
  • Identifying aggressive cancer
  • Types and sub-types of thyroid cancers
  • Invasive and aggressive thyroid cancers
  • Papillary versus anapestic thyroid cancer
  • Biopsy results in 2 - 3 hours
  • Clinical studies that have transformed thyroid treatment
  • Less aggressive surgery and less radioactive iodine
  • Targeted chemotherapies
  • Immunotherapy
  • The importance of clinical trial environments, or thoughtful philosophy
  • The minimum necessary surgery
  • Do not rush into thyroid cancer surgery

NOTES:

American Thyroid Association

Bryan McIver, MD, PhD

Ian D. Hay, M.D., Ph.D.

Hossein Gharib, M.D.

PAST EPISODES

32: Thyroid Cancer Surgery? The Single Most Important Question to Ask Your Surgeon with Dr. Gary Clayman

Nov 3, 2020

The past year has been fascinating and highly fruitful year for Dartmouth Institute Associate Professor Louise Davies, MD, MS. A 2017-2018 Fulbright Global Scholar, Davis spent several months in Japan at the Kuma Hospital in Kobe, Japan, studying the hospital's pioneering surveillance program for thyroid cancer. Davies, the chief of otolaryngology-head & neck surgery-at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in White River Junction, Vermont, has researched U.S. patients' experiences of monitoring thyroid cancers they self-identify as overdiagnosed, and has found that such patients often feel unsupported, even ostracized. Following her stay in Japan, Davies, who also develops and teaches courses in qualitative research methods in Dartmouth Institute's MPH programs, spent several months in the U.K. at the Health Experiences Research Group (HERG) at Oxford University. There, she learned skills that will help her develop web-based materials to raise public awareness about surveillance, surveillance programs, and overdiagnosis in general.

As if the year wasn't packed enough, Davies also visited the site of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, site of the 2011 nuclear accident in Japan. Unrelated to her Fulbright work, Davies is a member of an international task force organized through the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a branch of the World Health Organization. The task force will make recommendations on the monitoring of the thyroid gland after nuclear accidents. Learn more about her incredible year and what's next for her research in overdiagnosis!

Q: As a practicing physician, how did your interest in overdiagnosis develop?

A: My interest in over diagnosis grew from my work with Dr. Gil Welch, dating back to 2004. He was and is a mentor to me, and we developed the work on thyroid cancer together. I have always had an interest in making sure that patients receive care that aligned with their values. The problem of overdiagnosis is particularly intriguing because if people do not understand the concept, they may undergo treatment that, had they understood more about their risks, they might not have elected. Finding ways to solve that problem has been a fascinating focus for me.

Q: Is overdiagnosis and/or overtreatment in thyroid cancer on the rise, if so what accounts for this increase?

A: Thyroid cancer incidence has more than tripled in the U.S. over the past 30 years. The majority of the increase has been due to the detection of small cancers, which we know exist as a subclinical reservoir in otherwise asymptomatic people. As more attention has been drawn to the problem of overdiagnosis, the rate of increase has slowed, which has been gratifying to see; although it has not stopped completely or reversed. In the most recent national guidelines on the treatment of thyroid cancer (from the American Thyroid Association), there has been a clear suggestion that treatment should be more conservative for the small cancers that are so commonly detected now. It is not yet clear how much of an impact these new guidelines have had on practice patterns.

Q: You've studied the experiences of patients who are diagnosed with thyroid cancer but choose not to intervene. What are some of the commonalities you've found?
A: The patients who were the first to understand that their small, asymptomatic thyroid cancers picked up incidentally might not need immediate intervention, but instead could be monitored through regular checkups and active surveillance did not receive a lot of support from the medical community. Many managed their cancer by keeping it a secret, which can be stressful in itself, and several stopped getting follow ups-the recommended care if surveillance rather than interventions chosen for a small thyroid cancer. This was a unique group of patients who represented the first people to undertake what is a new and incompletely understood treatment option in the U.S. As such, they are probably more representative of people going against medical convention than thyroid cancer patients who elect to undertake surveillance, per se.
Q: What will/have you been looking for when evaluating the surveillance program at Kuma Hospital? How will you combine this with your own U.S. pilot data?
My goal in going to Kuma Hospital last fall was to understand more about the active surveillance program they have there. They were the first in the world to run such program and collect data on it, and have been doing so since 1993. I wanted to understand their data on active surveillance in more detail. I wanted to understand the patient experience of being on surveillance, and how the program worked operationally. I was able to do all those things and gathered patient experience data through a survey as well as interviews. I also was lucky to get to spend a fair amount of time in the operating room, where I learned a number of new surgical techniques that will advance my own practice in thyroid surgery. My goal is to report what I learned at Kuma Hospital as broadly as possible, so that people in the U.S. begin to feel comfortable adopting active surveillance as a method of managing the early thyroid cancers that are appropriate candidates for surveillance.

What's next for you in overdiagnosis research?
My work on the task force about thyroid monitoring after nuclear power plant accidents has given me a new appreciation for the complexity of public health communication about risk, emergency preparedness, and the problem of over diagnosis when it comes to policy setting. I hope to be able to continue to contribute in other ways to the broader public health discussion about over diagnosis. In my next steps looking at the epidemiology of thyroid cancer, I plan to focus on understanding more about why we see such variation in thyroid cancer incidence across geography, age groups, and gender.

NOTES

Louise Davies, MD, MS

Thyroid cancer and overdiagnosis

American Thyroid Association

35: Rethinking Thyroid Cancer – When Saying No to Surgery Maybe Best for You with Dr. Allen Ho from Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles

21: Diagnosed with Thyroid Cancer and You Say No to Surgery with Dr. Louise Davies

50: Regarding Thyroid Cancer, Are You a Minimalist or a Maximalist? with Dr. Michael Tuttle from Sloan Kettering

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